So I thought I’d take a quick break from writing the e-book/book to dispel some popular myths on this topic. For all of you wondering what I am writing the book about it will be on programming for beginners and intermediates for bodyweight strength training. I have a lot more information in queue besides what I listed in “The Fundamentals of Bodyweight Strength Training” so I hope you guys will look forward to that. Consider it as a preview to what the book will be about.
Table of Contents
I. What is cardiovascular disease?
II. Common myths of cardiovascular disease
III. How does atherosclerosis develop?
IV. Relating it all back to diet
4. Are you overweight?
V. The Conclusion
VI. Countering inflammation
What is cardiovascular disease? / To the top
Cardiovascular disease, otherwise known as heart disease or CVD, is the leading cause of death in America today. An estimated 81,000,000+ people have some form of CVD, and there are over 800,000+ deaths per year – more than cancer, accidents, and HIV combined.
Most of the deleterious changes in the heart are due to a specific subset of CVD which is coronary heart disease or coronary artery disease. The cause of this specifically is atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis is the build up of fatty plaque lining the inside of the arteries. If left unchecked and allowed to proliferate, atherosclerosis will lead to high blood pressure, myocardial infarction (heart attack), angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, potentially stroke, and other life threatening conditions as well.
Common myths of cardiovascular disease / To the top
One common myth on the development of atherosclerosis is that fat is bad. All fat is bad. Or saturated fat is bad.
This is very misleading. Unlike the food pyramid and many of the organizations out there would recommend polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are not universally good, and saturated fats are not universally bad. Fatty meat can be both bad and good – the correct answer is that it depends.
Another myth is that carbohydrates are good. If anything carbohydrates, especially refined carbohydrates are universally bad. Starches, which are complex carbohydrates, tend to be more on the neutral side of things but certainly not on the good side.
Fruits tend to be a bit on the more neutral side of things. While they do contain a large amount of simple sugars/carbohydrates, many contain a large amount of anti-oxidants which help buffer against the deleterious effects of simple sugars.
Another myth is cholesterol is bad. Cholesterol, especially dietary cholesterol, is not bad at all.
Lifestyle choices are the major reason that atherosclerosis develops. Eating right, exercising, and good sleep are all big factors in prevent cardiovascular disease.
We will look at all of this in more detail; however, first we will show you how atherosclerosis develops.
How does atherosclerosis develop? / To the top
Let’s examine how atherosclerosis develops. It all starts with endothelial cells which line the blood vessels.
Impaired endothelial function is often seen in patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, as well as in smokers. Endothelial dysfunction has also been shown to be predictive of future adverse cardiovascular events.
There are two main ways that chronic inflammation of the endothelial cells occur in the modern diet – foods excessive sugars and foods with excessive industrial seed oils.
First, we will look at the glucose mediated pathway.
Excessive simple carbohydrate mediated atherosclerosis
When we have a large intake of simple sugars, we get a huge rush of carbohydrates into the blood stream. This is what causes the sugar rushes/highs and then insulin is released and you crash back down in energy level. In general, this is not good.
So as the sugar is flowing through the bloodstream to the endothelial cells. Endothelial cells lack some ability to reduce their glucose intake since they are the mediators through which glucose needs to go through to get the rest of the body’s cells (e.g. all nutrients must leave the blood vessels through the endothelial cells to get to all of the other tissues). Thus, it makes sense that endothelial cells can easily absorb any metabolite or vitamin so that the rest of the body’s tissues can get it from the capillaries. Note: insulin will speed up this process because it helps glucose transports to drive glucose into cells faster which is the case after eating a lot of sugar — drive it through endothelial cells into mucsle and adipose tissue.
Endothelial cells clearly use sugars as a form of energy. When they are overloaded, they are metabolically broken down within the cell. As the production of energy (namely the transferrence of electrons from metabolites to NADH+H+ and FADH2) gets too high, the mitochondria start shutting down energy production.
Normally, the electrons are used in the electron transport chain to produce energy and are eventually transferred to oxygen and combine with hydrogen to form water. However, when the mitochondria shut down, the electrons are still shunted to oxygen and then form reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS activate some other pathways which turn off the energy metabolism upstream, which leaves a lot of metabolites stuck in limbo. These tend to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs).
ROS are normally damaging to the cell (through formation of free radicals) which is why the cells have protection against them by way of superoxide enzymes and antioxidants. However, excessive accumulation of them can lead to apoptosis (cell death), host defense, ion transport, and inflammation.
AGEs tend to be more reactive than their other metabolically active counterparts. These react with each other by cross linking, and often lead to a large amount of cellular damage and death.
Damage and destruction of cells from ROS and AGEs due to metabolically overloading them with simple sugars leads to a lot of inflammation in the area.
Excessive omega 6 fatty acids from industrial seed oils
The inflammation from omega-6 fatty acids happens in a somewhat related but somewhat different manner.
Fats are absorbed from the GI tract into through the endothelial cells and packaged and are transported through the lymphatic system into the bloodstream bypassing the liver. These are then transported to the cells that need them and either used for energy, stored as fat, or other places where they are needed. In the case of omega-6 fatty acids, and most of the precursors from arachadonic acid, some of these are incorporated into the cell membrane. In particular, omega-6 precurors and byproducts server as inflammatory agents to activate the body’s immune system.
Since some omega-6 products are incorporated into the cell membrane, when the membrane is ruptured some of them are released (as prostaglandins) stimulating inflammation. As you can see, the damage from AGEs and ROS may cause this to occur through significant damage to the cell membrane or the aforementioned apoptosis (cell death). The ensuing inflammatory response is the important part as we will see in a bit.
In addition, omega-6 are otherwise stored in adipose tissue. They are then able to be released later for energy purposes. However, as you can see if you start storing up an out of balance ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids can lead towards overall strong inflammatory effects within the body. This is also partly why people who are overweight or obese are at risk for a while other host of maladies related to heart disease such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, metabolic syndrome, cancer, etc. I will cover this in a later article.
Excessive inflammation and atherosclerosis
I found this excellent picture of how plaque buildup begins and develops, and I will refer back to it as I need to. Each phase will be depicted by #1-6.
Photo from http://scienceblogs.com/
1. Tissue damage and inflammation.
The damage from AGEs and ROS and the ensuing inflammatory response which is aggravated by excessive omega-6 intake leads to the immune system activating strongly.
Inflammation is a normal response in the body tries to remove pathogens while trying to heal the body. Unfortunately, in many cases inflammation can go haywire such as when you sprain your ankle and it swells up to the size of a softball. The same is true of the initial phase of atherosclerosis because of the reasons stated above.
We can tell the arteries are being damaged because macrophages start to gather around the artery walls. In the initial phase of inflammation when tissues are damaged, the damaged cells release cytokines which stimulate the immune system to start sending white blood cells (macrophages are one type) to the area because it thinks it is under attack.
Here is one such study confirming inflammations role.
2. Continued macrophage accumulation, and fatty streak.
Now, once the inflammation gets started if it is continually exacerbated through diet the body will keep sending macrophages to the area. This will lead to an accumulation of macrophages at the area.
The fatty streak is where the blood lipids come into play.
First, LDL and HDL are not cholesterol (LDL is commonly referred to as “bad cholesterol”). LDL and HDL are respectively low density and high density lipoproteins. These lipoproteins transport cholesterol and triglycerides to and from the cells of the body respectively.
Cholesterol and triglycerides are important components of the cell membrane. They are part of the phospholipid bilayer. In particular, cholesterol acts as an important mediator of ion transport, and regulation of membrane viscosity. Both of which are damaged severely from the AGEs and ROS.
So what happens in the fatty accumulation streak you see in this phase of atherosclerosis is that LDL is trying to dump off cholesterol and triglycerides to help patch up the damage much like a band aid. If the damage is not patched up for the endothelial cells then blood will leak out of the blood vessels, so the body patches it up.
In addition, inflammation is a natural inflammatory process which generates ROS and free radicals itself. Continued aggravation of the blood vessels through poor diet will lead the body to a chronic cycle of inflammation that allows the above to occur.
So yes, LDL and cholesterol are not bad in and of themselves. In fact, cholesterol in particular is trying to help the body by bandaid-ing the damage. However, they are signs themselves of problems in the body.
So why does medicine make a big deal out of LDL and cholesterol?
They are under the delusion that the problem is in the blood lipids themselves. This has been shown to be false by the studies. Like we talked about in the lactic acid article, the lactic acid is a metabolite which does not cause muscular acidosis or the whole other host of things it is sometimes blamed for. Rather, it is just a marker for anaerobic metabolism and is CORRELATED BUT DOES NOT CAUSE the events that many people often blame it for. This is the same for the blood lipids. Let’s talk a bit about them now.
Now, there are many forms of LDL. In the interest of brevity I’ll just tell you flat out that bigger is better. The bigger the LDL particle size is, the healthier you are. This is why if on your blood lipid panels you have a high LDL count it may mean nothing; you may be healthy if they particle sizes are all big.
Image from http://www.longevitytesting.com – because bigger is better (insert joke here)
Specifically, one of the abnormal forms of LDL is called oxidized LDL (oxLDL) which is very small and dense. These are formed through the AGEs, ROS, and ensuing inflammatory response. They are also inflammatory in and of themselves because oxidation of molecules makes them inflammatory (oxidation is an inflammatory process). More on oxLDL (one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, etc. — google/pubmed oxidized LDL or oxLDL).
OxLDL is a marker for damage like cholesterol, but it not actually causing the damage because we already explained the pathway above. Elevated blood LDL and cholesterol in particular are markers – they may show potential problems but are not the problems themselves. We will talk a bit later about what some high markers may mean.
3 & 4. Continued inflammation leads to continual macrophage and lipid accumulation.
This is self explanatory if dietary factors are unchanged.
The lipids accumulate and start to group together via hydrophobic/hydrophilic bonding and form cores of fatty streaks within the inflammed areas. The chronic inflammation is telling the body that something is very wrong, so it keeps trying to bandaid the area even when it is not necessary. This is one of the problematic hallmarks of chronic inflammation.
5. Fibrosis and calcification.
Inflammation is the cause of these as well.
What happens when you get a deep gash or wound on the skin? As the wound heals it scabs over, and then falls off. However, underneath is usually composed of scar tissue. Fibrosis or fibrotic changes within the tissue being continually damaged (the arteries itself) will occur as the inflammation is allowed to continue.
Calcification seems weird on the surface, but is quite logical. One of the major risk factors in excessive inflammation is calcification of the site. When inflammation and excessive edema/swelling occurs within an injury such as a sprained ankle or muscle tear, the inflammation signals for the body to repair. Since there is calcium ions contained within the blood and lots of oxidized material, the calcium may start to precipitate out of the blood and form calcified solids.
So in the end, chronic inflammation leads to fiborsis and calcification of the fatty solids and macrophage tissue. Here’s a nice picture of what happens in this phase.
Photo from http://content.onlinejacc.org/
6. Surface defects, thrombosis.
This is where the crap is really hitting the fan.
As the atherosclerotic lesions start to grow bigger, they start forming oddly shaped structures or the surface becomes more inconsistent.
This is problematic because whenever you start moving around a lot (or even a little in the case of very bad development) the arteries themselves grow and shrink to accommodate blood volume and exercise stress.
Since the plaque itself is already hardened and fibrous, it is unlike arteries which are made to constrict and widen easily. Thus, the probability goes up that the arteries themselves will tear or thrombosis occurs (blood clots forming and blocking the flow of blood in the arteries – occurs with, you guessed it, inflammation).
This is where the really bad stuff starts occurring like heart attacks, stroke, etc. You are in a life threatening situation if this occurs.
Ironically, the aneuryms (rupture of the blood vessels) would have occurred early had it NOT been for cholesterol. Cholesterol is not bad at all. Most people should get that out of their heads.
In conclusion, chronic inflammation of the arterial walls is the primary cause of athersclerotic development. This is due to the two factors mentioned above which help perpetuate chronic inflammation: excessive chronic sugar intake (which leads to AGEs and ROS → cell damage and death → inflammatory) and excessive omega-6 fatty acids (which are inflammatory agents in and of themselves).
Continued inflammation from dietary sources consitently aggravates the arterial tissue much in the way continued scratching a rash will irritate the skin. If done for long enough periods of time, the lesions on the arterial walls become “scab-like” and filled with pus (macrophages) around the “scabbing” of the damaged area from the cholesterol and triglycerides. Eventually, they grow big enough to cause problems such as stroke, congestive heart failure, etc.
One analogy I’ve seen is that poor diet is like taking a cheese grater to your arteries and rubbing. Every day at every meal. Sickening but true. But that’s what a poor diet does.
Relating it all back to diet / To the top
So now we know that the major cause of everything related to atherosclerosis is related to inflammtory processes gone haywire inside the body.
The problem is how exactly do we combat this if we do not know what foods are inflammatory or not?
This is where a lot of the current dietary recommendation of the government has gone wrong. The low fat diet does not work. The food pyramid does not work.
Let us take a look at foods.
Carbohydrates / To the top
Carbohydrates are oxidized in our bodies for fuel (via glycolysis and cellular respiration).
However, if we eat a zero carbohydrate diet our livers have a process called gluconeogenesis which will manufacture glucose for our cells to use. Thus, carbohydrates are not universally bad; it is the magnitude of how much we consume which is bad for us.
Image from http://www.biochem.arizona.edu/
As we examined before simple and refined carbohydrates are very bad in most cases. Simple and refined sugars are absorbed into our bodies via cotransport (symport) from the intestinal lumen into the blood stream. This requires no energy and is very quick.
A quick spiking in carbohydrates into the bloodstream leads insulin spiking to drive the sugars into tissues such as muscles for energy and fat cells for storage. As we explained before, oxidation of these sugars are extremely inflammatory and lead to damage of the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels within the body.
This inflammation is strong enough to increase the levels of C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha), and other markers of inflammation strongly. Unfortunately, I am not going to go in depth to discuss these factors, but you can research them in pubmed or google at your leisure.
Clearly, this is one of the ways that the arteries themselves start to become inflammed leading to atherosclerosis.
Starches, however, found in most vegetables are more slowly absorbed. This causes less of an insulin spike, and less inflammatory reactions in the body.
I intentionally left wheat and other grains out of the starches. While they are more slow absorbing, a lot of wheat products are highly inflammatory in the gut. This is not just true of celiac patients – most people have some sort of sensitivity to gluten even if you are not aware of it. I would suggest everyone at least try gluten free eating to see if your health improves especially if you have intestinal issues or other inflammatory conditions such as asthma.
Fruits, as mentioned before, are mostly composed of simple sugars, but they do have a lot of anti-oxidants to counter the effects of the sugar. They are at best, neutral, and at worst (if consumed extensively) possibly detrimental by stimulating inflammation. Kurt Harris, one of the strong proponents of very low carbohydrate Paleo eating, has said that fruits have evolved to contain anti-oxidants BECAUSE of the inflammatory nature of carbohydrates in the body. Something interesting to think about.
In general, if you are going to eat carbohydrates stay away from anything processed. And stick with fruits and vegetables. Mostly vegetables.
Regarding mass consumptions of fruits I would avoid this because they are all carbs. If anything it would not be a good idea to eat anymore than 1-2 cups of fruit per day because of the high carbohydrate content. The berries — strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, etc. — tend to be a lot better than most fruits nutrient-wise and are a little less on the sugar content. I would eat most of my fruits, if you are going to eat them, from these.
Again, what is healthy? Real foods. Fruits and vegetables.
Fats / To the top
Fats are an interesting topic because they are demonized in general by the government and many other of the top level medical organizations. This is one of the biggest blunders of modern nutrition.
First, let’s hash out why some fats are good and some fats are bad.
Obviously, given what we know about inflammation above we know that Omega-6 fatty acids are “bad” and Omega-3 fatty acids are “good.” We should not get too far ahead of ourselves though because our bodies need an adequate balance of O 6:3 ratios to operate optimally. If we go overboard with anti-inflammatories we put ourselves at risk for developing illnesses and other maladies much easier. There has to be a balance.
From what I’ve read the optimal ratio is around 2:1, 3:2, or 1:1 O 6:3. If more people are interested in this I may do a bit more research into it.
However, the typical “Western Diet” which is composed of a lot of processed foods typically have ratios in excess of 10:1 or as high as 30:1 in favor of Omega 6s over Omega 3s. This is because of the content of processed oils, especially vegetable oils and industrial seed oils, contained in the foods.
Image from http://scdgirl.blogspot.com/2009/12/omega-6-fats.html
As you can see there is an extremely high amount of omega 6 content in the vegetable and seed oils used in the industrial manufacturing process on a per calorie basis. There are almost no sources of omega 3s in most processed foods. Thus, chronic inflammatory conditions are likely to develop by eating processed foods.
nuts and seeds and oils / To the top
Likewise, most nuts and seeds have very poor omega 6:3 ratios. Hence, why pigging out on nuts is ill advised.
The ones with the least amount of omega 6s or decent ratios are the better ones to eat. Walnuts, cashews, almonds, hazelnuts, and brazil nuts are good but should only be eaten in moderation.
For those with worse amount of inflammatory fats present in the body, nuts can often start to help by bringing the ratios back towards normal. Definitely not recommended on going overboard to start to get back to optimal health though.
Images from — http://www.udoschoice.co.uk and http://s78296.gridserver.com/
Sorry, some repeats on the images.
Fatty meats, lard (pig fat), tallow (beef & lamb fat) / To the top
Here is where it gets interesting.
As you can see from a couple of the charts above the content of most of the meats actually do not do too poor omega 6:3 ratios in some cases. Thus, eating fatty meat is indeed neutral at worst and good at best.
This is clearly an overlooked phenomena, and if you are a hater of the meat industry it is just another good reason to hate them. They grain feed because it fattens up the livestock much more quickly, but it also distorts not only the health of the livestock but our health as well.
We are what we eat… but we also are what we eat eats.
Eating fatty meat or fat from grass fed animals is much healthier (and decreases risk of cardiovascular incidents such as heart attacks) than eating food from grain fed animals. Eating fatty meat compared to a diet in processed foods is much healthier though not as good as grass fed animals.
Although there are distorted omega 6:3 ratios in grain fed animals, the industrial seed oils tend to contain a much bigger imbalance of the omega 6:3 ratios in addition to the excessive simple carbohydrates. Hence, why eating fatty meat from grain fed animals would be healthier than processed food alternatives.
The fact that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids are relatively inflammatory neutral means it is fine to consume them. Olive oil is a monounsaturated fatty acid that has a fair amount of anti-inflammatory properties to it. Also, if you take a look at the coconut oil (which is composed of pretty much all medium chain saturated triglycerides — all saturated fat) you will see that the omega 6:3 ratio is very good. And it is considered a healthy saturated fat.
If I had a nickle every time someone told me that the fatty meat I’m eating is going to kill me I’d be rich. But it feels good to know that my fatty meat tastes damn good and is healthy for me.
Because I didn’t talk about extensively why saturated fat is not bad here’s some studies to prove this (and even is slightly protective against CVD/stroke):
Fats conclusion / To the top
So what can we conclude here.
We know that fats that cause inflammation are bad, but only because they are out of ratio in the modern diet. These are the ones composed of high omega 6 fatty acids or high omega 6:3 ratios.
Most processed food contains large amounts of processed oils. Just go into any supermarket and look at the list of ingredients. You will almost always see the vegetable oils listed – sunflower, safflower, soybean, corn, etc. These are terrible for you. Not to mention most processed foods contain a lot of refined carbohydrates. It’s a double bad whammy for your body.
What is the general conclusion though?
Nuts are fine in moderate. Animal fats are fine. Nut, seed, and vegetable oils are poor.
See a pattern here?
In our evolutionary history there was an abundance of animal fats to eat after killing. Grass fed animals. Nuts were available to us in moderation. However, we had absolutely no access to nut, seed, or vegetable oils which are products of the manufacturing process.
What is healthy? Real foods.
Protein / To the top
I’m not going to talk about this except a paragraph or two.
Protein for all intents and purposes has other roles in the body (nitrogen balance, metabolism, etc.) but is not specifically correlated with raising inflammatory markers as much as carbohydrates and fat.
Yes, eating protein does spike insulin, but it is accompanied with corresponding increases in glucagon which keeps blood sugar normalized and thus inflammatory processes on the down low.
Protein is essential for those looking to gain muscle, lose fat, and stay healthy with exercise though so it is definitely an important nutrient. Just not a risk factor in CVD.
I obviously strongly disagree with the vegetarian and vegan lifestyle because it is not optimal, and we did not evolve that way. There is almost no way to get adequate intake of a good amount of protein, B-vitamins, and omega 3 fatty acids with such diets without supplementing. I do not think that is how our ancestors would have gotten those nutrients either. This is not to mention athletic activity which requires higher protein intake.
Eat your meat, fish, and fowl. Preferably grass fed.
Are you overweight? / To the top
There is one thing I haven’t mentioned yet and that is if you are obese or overweight on a refined or processed food diet.
If you are someone looking to get your weight down, and you have gotten to be overweight from refined or processed foods we have a problem. The fat stored within the adipose tissue is still primarily composed of omega 6 fatty acids. They are still potently inflammatory even in the cells.
The trick is to counter this with anti-inflammatory foods. It will not only help reduce inflammation, but it will also help mobilize energy to help you lose weight. The main way you can do this is supplementing fish oil.
There’s many recommendations on this so I’ll just post two:
1. Robb Wolf tends to recommend anywhere from .5-1g of EPA+DHA per 10 lbs of body mass per day. So someone at 200 lbs would be taking 10-20g of EPA+DHA per day.
2. Charles Poliquin has recommended your percentage of bodyfat in grams per day. So if you’re 30% bodyfat then take 30g of EPA+DHA per day.
These are just two recommendations, but supplementing fish oil is definitely important to help get inflammation down.
Lovaza is the prescription fish oil if you don’t feel safe buying supplements. If you’re overweight/obese you may be able to get one from your doc and insurance will pick up most of the tab.
I’ll talk a little more about this in the conclusion though.
The conclusion / To the top
So what is our overarching conclusion now that we have investigated systemic inflammation and its primary cause in developing atherosclerosis?
Eat real foods. It’s that simple.
Stay away from processed and refined carbohydrates. Stay away from anything with partially or hydrogenated vegetable oils in it. This is pretty much everything that comes in a package – chips, baked goods, soda, candy, etc. Bread is not much better because it is composed of refined carbohydrates.
If anything, stay away from wheat and other grains as much as possible because of the gut inflammation. It is a real food, but it does have negative side effects much like some other poisonous plants (hemlock comes to mind) because of proteins such as gluten which are their host-defense mechanism against animals eating them…. such as us.
Remember, plants and grains have evolutionarily evolved to contain nutrients that deter animals from eating them. They do contain some anti-nutrients for nutrients that help. Vegetables in general are better than grains both in nutrients and lack of anti-nutrients. Remember, all those grain cereals or bread you are eating the manufacturers are MADE to add vitamins and minerals to them. This is not something you want to eat.
Fruits have evolved to contain lots of carbohydrates, but the anti-oxidants to handle the carbohydrates.
Eat fat from real sources. Nuts sparingly because of somewhat poor omega 6:3 ratios. Meat fat is neutral at worst and good at best; tallow and lard are the same. All the better if you get it grass fed.
I did not touch on eggs and dairy above. Eggs are healthy. The yolk is definitely healthy – as you know it contains most of the nutrients and cholesterol by itself is not bad for you. In fact, your liver creates most of the cholesterol for your body so dietary cholesterol is a moot point.
Avoid dairy and eggs are you are allergic. Anything you are allergic to is highly inflammatory. If you are fine with eating dairy and eggs then go for it. Very healthy. Raw milk is much better than the pasteurized garbage in the stores. Eggs are obviously better if they are allowed to free range (omega 3 eggs).
We evolved to do well on a diet of real foods, so why is it any surprised when we eat our processed foods that our health fails us?
Here is a journal article showing all thing is wrong with the current US nutritional recommendations.
1. Eat a wide variety of plants.
2. Fruit in moderation. Berries tend to be a lot better than most.
3. Animal fats and butters are good. Especially if they are grass fed.
4. Cook with animal fats or better ratio O 6:3 oils such as coconut or olive.
5. Eat nuts sparingly.
6. Eggs are healthy if you are not allergic. The yolk is healthy. Omega 3 eggs if possible.
7. Dairy is fine if not allergic. Drink WHOLE MILK; skim is all sugar and inflammatory.
1. Stay away from grains
2. Stay away from refined foods.
3. Stay away from anything with processed oils.
4. Processed substitutes are bad. For example, margerine (composed of polyunsaturated vegetable oils) is very bad compared to real butter.
Note: some proponents of Paleo nutrition (gluten free + eat real foods) would have you go low or very low carbohydrate with healthy fats. This has been proven extremely effective in reversing much inflammation. If you are obese or overweight it may be advisable to go this route. If you are healthy, it is still advised in many cases.
And our “new” food pyramid looks something like this:
Image courtesy of Mark’s Daily Apple
Note: again, fruits should be less than vegetables here and can be eliminated totally if you’re having issues with the sugar content.
Countering inflammation / To the top
There are only two supplements I universally recommend to everyone. Fish oil and vitamin D.
Both are anti-inflammatory, but obviously fish oil is the more potent of the two. Vitamin D does a lot of other stuff besides being an anti-inflammatory. Click on the above link and check it out if you have not already.
Regardless, if you are going to cheat on your diet and eat processed foods (which most of us once in a while) it is important to help counter the inflammation with supplementation. Even if you are not eating any processed food at all and eating clean, it can be a good thing to take inflammation because of the residual effects of grain fed meat and/or other nuts. Oily fish can be a good substitute as well.
I try to take at least 5-7g per day which has been working great. This evens out to around .5g per 10 lbs body mass or 1g per % body fat for me.
I would suggest all you who eat clean do similarly. Take more if you are having weight issues.
I hope you learned a lot about cardiovascular disease and eating well. Remember, when in doubt eat real food.